Whenever possible, the bibliography includes stable hypertext links to the references cited.

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[RFC20]Cerf, V., ASCII format for network interchange, RFC 20, Oct. 1969
[RFC768]Postel, J., User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768, Aug. 1980
[RFC789]Rosen, E., Vulnerabilities of network control protocols: An example, RFC 789, July 1981
[RFC791]Postel, J., Internet Protocol, RFC 791, Sep. 1981
[RFC792]Postel, J., Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792, Sep. 1981
[RFC793]Postel, J., Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793, Sept. 1981
[RFC813]Clark, D., Window and Acknowledgement Strategy in TCP, RFC 813, July 1982
[RFC819]Su, Z. and Postel, J., Domain naming convention for Internet user applications, RFC 819, Aug. 1982
[RFC821]Postel, J., Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, RFC 821, Aug. 1982
[RFC822]Crocker, D., Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages, :rfc:`822, Aug. 1982
[RFC826]Plummer, D., Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC 826, Nov. 1982
[RFC879]Postel, J., TCP maximum segment size and related topics, RFC 879, Nov. 1983
[RFC893]Leffler, S. and Karels, M., Trailer encapsulations, RFC 893, April 1984
[RFC894]Hornig, C., A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet Networks, RFC 894, April 1984
[RFC896]Nagle, J., Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks, RFC 896, Jan. 1984
[RFC952]Harrenstien, K. and Stahl, M. and Feinler, E., DoD Internet host table specification, RFC 952, Oct. 1985
[RFC959]Postel, J. and Reynolds, J., File Transfer Protocol, RFC 959, Oct. 1985
[RFC974]Partridge, C., Mail routing and the domain system, RFC 974, Jan. 1986
[RFC1032]Stahl, M., Domain administrators guide, RFC 1032, Nov. 1987
[RFC1035]Mockapteris, P., Domain names - implementation and specification, RFC 1035, Nov. 1987
[RFC1042]Postel, J. and Reynolds, J., Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks, RFC 1042, Feb. 1988
[RFC1055]Romkey, J., Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP, RFC 1055, June 1988
[RFC1071]Braden, R., Borman D. and Partridge, C., Computing the Internet checksum, RFC 1071, Sep. 1988
[RFC1122]Braden, R., Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication Layers, RFC 1122, Oct. 1989
[RFC1144]Jacobson, V., Compressing TCP/IP Headers for Low-Speed Serial Links, RFC 1144, Feb. 1990
[RFC1149]Waitzman, D., Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams on avian carriers, RFC 1149, Apr. 1990
[RFC1169]Cerf, V. and Mills, K., Explaining the role of GOSIP, RFC 1169, Aug. 1990
[RFC1191]Mogul, J. and Deering, S., Path MTU discovery, RFC 1191, Nov. 1990
[RFC1195]Callon, R., Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and dual environments, RFC 1195, Dec. 1990
[RFC1258]Kantor, B., BSD Rlogin, RFC 1258, Sept. 1991
[RFC1321]Rivest, R., The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm, RFC 1321, April 1992
[RFC1323]Jacobson, V., Braden R. and Borman, D., TCP Extensions for High Performance, RFC 1323, May 1992
[RFC1347]Callon, R., TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing, RFC 1347, June 1992
[RFC1518]Rekhter, Y. and Li, T., An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR, RFC 1518, Sept. 1993
[RFC1519]Fuller V., Li T., Yu J. and Varadhan, K., Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy, RFC 1519, Sept. 1993
[RFC1542]Wimer, W., Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol, RFC 1542, Oct. 1993
[RFC1548]Simpson, W., The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), RFC 1548, Dec. 1993
[RFC1550]Bradner, S. and Mankin, A., IP: Next Generation (IPng) White Paper Solicitation, RFC 1550, Dec. 1993
[RFC1561]Piscitello, D., Use of ISO CLNP in TUBA Environments, RFC 1561, Dec. 1993
[RFC1621]Francis, P., PIP Near-term architecture, RFC 1621, May 1994
[RFC1624]Risjsighani, A., Computation of the Internet Checksum via Incremental Update, RFC 1624, May 1994
[RFC1631]Egevang K. and Francis, P., The IP Network Address Translator (NAT), RFC 1631, May 1994
[RFC1661]Simpson, W., The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), RFC 1661, Jul. 1994
[RFC1662]Simpson, W., PPP in HDLC-like Framing, RFC 1662, July 1994
[RFC1710]Hinden, R., Simple Internet Protocol Plus White Paper, RFC 1710, Oct. 1994
[RFC1738]Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and McCahill M., Uniform Resource Locators (URL), RFC 1738, Dec. 1994
[RFC1752]Bradner, S. and Mankin, A., The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol, RFC 1752, Jan. 1995
[RFC1812]Baker, F., Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers, RFC 1812, June 1995
[RFC1819]Delgrossi, L., Berger, L., Internet Stream Protocol Version 2 (ST2) Protocol Specification - Version ST2+, RFC 1819, Aug. 1995
[RFC1889]Schulzrinne H., Casner S., Frederick, R. and Jacobson, V., RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications, RFC 1889, Jan. 1996
[RFC1896]Resnick P., Walker A., The text/enriched MIME Content-type, RFC 1896, Feb. 1996
[RFC1918]Rekhter Y., Moskowitz B., Karrenberg D., de Groot G. and Lear, E., Address Allocation for Private Internets, RFC 1918, Feb. 1996
[RFC1939]Myers, J. and Rose, M., Post Office Protocol - Version 3, RFC 1939, May 1996
[RFC1945]Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and Frystyk, H., Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.0, RFC 1945, May 1996
[RFC1948]Bellovin, S., Defending Against Sequence Number Attacks, RFC 1948, May 1996
[RFC1951]Deutsch, P., DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3, RFC 1951, May 1996
[RFC1981]McCann, J., Deering, S. and Mogul, J., Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6, RFC 1981, Aug. 1996
[RFC2003]Perkins, C., IP Encapsulation within IP, RFC 2003, Oct. 1996
[RFC2018]Mathis, M., Mahdavi, J., Floyd, S. and Romanow, A., TCP Selective Acknowledgment Options, RFC 2018, Oct. 1996
[RFC2045]Freed, N. and Borenstein, N., Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies, RFC 2045, Nov. 1996
[RFC2046]Freed, N. and Borenstein, N., Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, RFC 2046, Nov. 1996
[RFC2050]Hubbard, K. and Kosters, M. and Conrad, D. and Karrenberg, D. and Postel, J., Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines, RFC 2050, Nov. 1996
[RFC2080]Malkin, G. and Minnear, R., RIPng for IPv6, RFC 2080, Jan. 1997
[RFC2082]Baker, F. and Atkinson, R., RIP-2 MD5 Authentication, RFC 2082, Jan. 1997
[RFC2131]Droms, R., Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131, March 1997
[RFC2140]Touch, J., TCP Control Block Interdependence, RFC 2140, April 1997
[RFC2225]Laubach, M., Halpern, J., Classical IP and ARP over ATM, RFC 2225, April 1998
[RFC2328]Moy, J., OSPF Version 2, RFC 2328, April 1998
[RFC2332]Luciani, J. and Katz, D. and Piscitello, D. and Cole, B. and Doraswamy, N., NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP), RFC 2332, April 1998
[RFC2364]Gross, G. and Kaycee, M. and Li, A. and Malis, A. and Stephens, J., PPP Over AAL5, RFC 2364, July 1998
[RFC2368]Hoffman, P. and Masinter, L. and Zawinski, J., The mailto URL scheme, RFC 2368, July 1998
[RFC2453]Malkin, G., RIP Version 2, RFC 2453, Nov. 1998
[RFC2460]Deering S., Hinden, R., Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, RFC 2460, Dec. 1998
[RFC2464]Crawford, M., Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks, RFC 2464, Dec. 1998
[RFC2507]Degermark, M. and Nordgren, B. and Pink, S., IP Header Compression, RFC 2507, Feb. 1999
[RFC2516]Mamakos, L. and Lidl, K. and Evarts, J. and Carrel, J. and Simone, D. and Wheeler, R., A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE), RFC 2516, Feb. 1999
[RFC2581]Allman, M. and Paxson, V. and Stevens, W., TCP Congestion Control, RFC 2581, April 1999
[RFC2616]Fielding, R. and Gettys, J. and Mogul, J. and Frystyk, H. and Masinter, L. and Leach, P. and Berners-Lee, T., Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1, RFC 2616, June 1999
[RFC2617]Franks, J. and Hallam-Baker, P. and Hostetler, J. and Lawrence, S. and Leach, P. and Luotonen, A. and Stewart, L., HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication, RFC 2617, June 1999
[RFC2622]Alaettinoglu, C. and Villamizar, C. and Gerich, E. and Kessens, D. and Meyer, D. and Bates, T. and Karrenberg, D. and Terpstra, M., Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), RFC 2622, June 1999
[RFC2675]Tsirtsis, G. and Srisuresh, P., Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT), RFC 2766, Feb. 2000
[RFC2854]Connolly, D. and Masinter, L., The ‘text/html’ Media Type, RFC 2854, June 2000
[RFC2965]Kristol, D. and Montulli, L., HTTP State Management Mechanism, RFC 2965, Oct. 2000
[RFC2988]Paxson, V. and Allman, M., Computing TCP’s Retransmission Timer, RFC 2988, Nov. 2000
[RFC2991]Thaler, D. and Hopps, C., Multipath Issues in Unicast and Multicast Next-Hop Selection, RFC 2991, Nov. 2000
[RFC3021]Retana, A. and White, R. and Fuller, V. and McPherson, D., Using 31-Bit Prefixes on IPv4 Point-to-Point Links, RFC 3021, Dec. 2000
[RFC3022]Srisuresh, P., Egevang, K., Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT), RFC 3022, Jan. 2001
[RFC3031]Rosen, E. and Viswanathan, A. and Callon, R., Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture, RFC 3031, Jan. 2001
[RFC3168]Ramakrishnan, K. and Floyd, S. and Black, D., The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP, RFC 3168, Sept. 2001
[RFC3243]Carpenter, B. and Brim, S., Middleboxes: Taxonomy and Issues, RFC 3234, Feb. 2002
[RFC3235]Senie, D., Network Address Translator (NAT)-Friendly Application Design Guidelines, RFC 3235, Jan. 2002
[RFC3309]Stone, J. and Stewart, R. and Otis, D., Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Checksum Change, RFC 3309, Sept. 2002
[RFC3315]Droms, R. and Bound, J. and Volz, B. and Lemon, T. and Perkins, C. and Carney, M., Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6), RFC 3315, July 2003
[RFC3330]IANA, Special-Use IPv4 Addresses, RFC 3330, Sept. 2002
[RFC3360]Floyd, S., Inappropriate TCP Resets Considered Harmful, RFC 3360, Aug. 2002
[RFC3390]Allman, M. and Floyd, S. and Partridge, C., Increasing TCP’s Initial Window, RFC 3390, Oct. 2002
[RFC3490]Faltstrom, P. and Hoffman, P. and Costello, A., Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA), RFC 3490, March 2003
[RFC3501]Crispin, M., Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4 rev1, RFC 3501, March 2003
[RFC3513]Hinden, R. and Deering, S., Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture, RFC 3513, April 2003
[RFC3596]Thomson, S. and Huitema, C. and Ksinant, V. and Souissi, M., DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6, RFC 3596, October 2003
[RFC3748]Aboba, B. and Blunk, L. and Vollbrecht, J. and Carlson, J. and Levkowetz, H., Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), RFC 3748, June 2004
[RFC3819]Karn, P. and Bormann, C. and Fairhurst, G. and Grossman, D. and Ludwig, R. and Mahdavi, J. and Montenegro, G. and Touch, J. and Wood, L., Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers, RFC 3819, July 2004
[RFC3828]Larzon, L-A. and Degermark, M. and Pink, S. and Jonsson, L-E. and Fairhurst, G., The Lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDP-Lite), RFC 3828, July 2004
[RFC3927]Cheshire, S. and Aboba, B. and Guttman, E., Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses, RFC 3927, May 2005
[RFC3931]Lau, J. and Townsley, M. and Goyret, I., Layer Two Tunneling Protocol - Version 3 (L2TPv3), RFC 3931, March 2005
[RFC3971]Arkko, J. and Kempf, J. and Zill, B. and Nikander, P., SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND), RFC 3971, March 2005
[RFC3972]Aura, T., Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA), RFC 3972, March 2005
[RFC3986]Berners-Lee, T. and Fielding, R. and Masinter, L., Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, RFC 3986, January 2005
[RFC4033]Arends, R. and Austein, R. and Larson, M. and Massey, D. and Rose, S., DNS Security Introduction and Requirements, RFC 4033, March 2005
[RFC4193]Hinden, R. and Haberman, B., Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses, RFC 4193, Oct. 2005
[RFC4251]Ylonen, T. and Lonvick, C., The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol Architecture, RFC 4251, Jan. 2006
[RFC4264]Griffin, T. and Huston, G., BGP Wedgies, RFC 4264, Nov. 2005
[RFC4271]Rekhter, Y. and Li, T. and Hares, S., A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4), RFC 4271, Jan. 2006
[RFC4291]Hinden, R. and Deering, S., IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture, RFC 4291, Feb. 2006
[RFC4301]Kent, S. and Seo, K., Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol, RFC 4301, Dec. 2005
[RFC4302]Kent, S., IP Authentication Header, RFC 4302, Dec. 2005
[RFC4303]Kent, S., IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), RFC 4303, Dec. 2005
[RFC4340]Kohler, E. and Handley, M. and Floyd, S., Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP), RFC 4340, March 2006
[RFC4443]Conta, A. and Deering, S. and Gupta, M., Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, RFC 4443, March 2006
[RFC4451]McPherson, D. and Gill, V., BGP MULTI_EXIT_DISC (MED) Considerations, RFC 4451, March 2006
[RFC4456]Bates, T. and Chen, E. and Chandra, R., BGP Route Reflection: An Alternative to Full Mesh Internal BGP (IBGP), RFC 4456, April 2006
[RFC4614]Duke, M. and Braden, R. and Eddy, W. and Blanton, E., A Roadmap for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Specification Documents, RFC 4614, Oct. 2006
[RFC4648]Josefsson, S., The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings, RFC 4648, Oct. 2006
[RFC4822]Atkinson, R. and Fanto, M., RIPv2 Cryptographic Authentication, RFC 4822, Feb. 2007
[RFC4838]Cerf, V. and Burleigh, S. and Hooke, A. and Torgerson, L. and Durst, R. and Scott, K. and Fall, K. and Weiss, H., Delay-Tolerant Networking Architecture, RFC 4838, April 2007
[RFC4861]Narten, T. and Nordmark, E. and Simpson, W. and Soliman, H.,`Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)`, RFC 4861, Sept. 2007
[RFC4862]Thomson, S. and Narten, T. and Jinmei, T., IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration, RFC 4862, Sept. 2007
[RFC4870]Delany, M., Domain-Based Email Authentication Using Public Keys Advertised in the DNS (DomainKeys), RFC 4870, May 2007
[RFC4871]Allman, E. and Callas, J. and Delany, M. and Libbey, M. and Fenton, J. and Thomas, M., DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) Signatures, RFC 4871, May 2007
[RFC4941]Narten, T. and Draves, R. and Krishnan, S., Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6, RFC 4941, Sept. 2007
[RFC4944]Montenegro, G. and Kushalnagar, N. and Hui, J. and Culler, D., Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks, RFC 4944, Sept. 2007
[RFC4952]Klensin, J. and Ko, Y., Overview and Framework for Internationalized Email, RFC 4952, July 2007
[RFC4953]Touch, J., Defending TCP Against Spoofing Attacks, RFC 4953, July 2007
[RFC4954]Simeborski, R. and Melnikov, A., SMTP Service Extension for Authentication, RFC 4954, July 2007
[RFC4963]Heffner, J. and Mathis, M. and Chandler, B., IPv4 Reassembly Errors at High Data Rates, RFC 4963, July 2007
[RFC4966]Aoun, C. and Davies, E., Reasons to Move the Network Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) to Historic Status, RFC 4966, July 2007
[RFC4987]Eddy, W., TCP SYN Flooding Attacks and Common Mitigations, RFC 4987, Aug. 2007
[RFC5004]Chen, E. and Sangli, S., Avoid BGP Best Path Transitions from One External to Another, RFC 5004, Sept. 2007
[RFC5065]Traina, P. and McPherson, D. and Scudder, J., Autonomous System Confederations for BGP, RFC 5065, Aug. 2007
[RFC5068]Hutzler, C. and Crocker, D. and Resnick, P. and Allman, E. and Finch, T., Email Submission Operations: Access and Accountability Requirements, RFC 5068, Nov. 2007
[RFC5072]Varada, S. and Haskins, D. and Allen, E., IP Version 6 over PPP, RFC 5072, Sept. 2007
[RFC5095]Abley, J. and Savola, P. and Neville-Neil, G., Deprecation of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6, RFC 5095, Dec. 2007
[RFC5227]Cheshire, S., IPv4 Address Conflict Detection, RFC 5227, July 2008
[RFC5234]Crocker, D. and Overell, P., Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF, RFC 5234, Jan. 2008
[RFC5321]Klensin, J., Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, RFC 5321, Oct. 2008
[RFC5322]Resnick, P., Internet Message Format, RFC 5322, Oct. 2008
[RFC5340]Coltun, R. and Ferguson, D. and Moy, J. and Lindem, A., OSPF for IPv6, RFC 5340, July 2008
[RFC5598]Crocker, D., Internet Mail Architecture, RFC 5598, July 2009
[RFC5646]Phillips, A. and Davis, M., Tags for Identifying Languages, RFC 5646, Sept. 2009
[RFC5681]Allman, M. and Paxson, V. and Blanton, E., TCP congestion control, RFC 5681, Sept. 2009
[RFC5735]Cotton, M. and Vegoda, L., Special Use IPv4 Addresses, RFC 5735, January 2010
[RFC5795]Sandlund, K. and Pelletier, G. and Jonsson, L-E., The RObust Header Compression (ROHC) Framework, RFC 5795, March 2010
[RFC6077]Papadimitriou, D. and Welzl, M. and Scharf, M. and Briscoe, B., Open Research Issues in Internet Congestion Control, RFC 6077, February 2011
[RFC6068]Duerst, M., Masinter, L. and Zawinski, J., The ‘mailto’ URI Scheme , RFC 6068, October 2010
[RFC6144]Baker, F. and Li, X. and Bao, X. and Yin, K., Framework for IPv4/IPv6 Translation, RFC 6144, April 2011
[RFC6265]Barth, A., HTTP State Management Mechanism, RFC 6265, April 2011
[RFC6274]Gont, F., Security Assessment of the Internet Protocol Version 4, RFC 6274, July 2011
[RG2010]Rhodes, B. and Goerzen, J., Foundations of Python Network Programming: The Comprehensive Guide to Building Network Applications with Python, Second Edition, Academic Press, 2004
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